The coffee plant

la_pianta_del_caffe_cagliari

The coffee plant grows in the equatorial-tropical area, and it is an evergreen, growing in a continuous cycle. It prefers hot humid climates and can grow at altitudes between 200 and 2500 meters.
The flowers are white and have an intense aroma reminiscent of jasmine.
The fruits are oval berries similar to cherries, after 7-9 month they ripen and become red.
The berry has an outer skin and a pulp that protect the two beans inside, wrapped around by a rude skin (parchment) and a silver film.

THE VARIETIES: ARABICA AND ROBUSTA

The coffee plant is classified into many varieties, but the two most common are Arabica and Robusta.

 

The Arabica variety is about 65% of the world production. Native of Arabia, today it grows mainly in Central and South America, the world’s largest producer is Brazil (1/3 of world production), followed by Colombia (first producer of washed coffee).
Arabica is the most precious quality coffee, it contains less caffeine than other species, and its plant needs constant care. The grain is elongated and flat.

 

arabica
robusta

The Robusta variety accounts for about 35% of world production. Native of Central-Africa, it grows in Africa and in Asia ( in particular in Vietnam, the second world’s largest coffee maker), but in Central-South America we find small Robusta productions of highest quality.
Robusta is considered less precious than Arabica, due to the high percentage of caffeine that affects the taste of coffee. It is a stronger variety that needs less care and therefore it is cheaper.
The grain is round shape.